Machine learning is an evolving and complex science. If one takes into account all possible scenarios, dependencies and models, it would be impossible to sketch an all-encompassing explanation. So I will focus on what the non-data scientist should know about machine learning. That is, they should focus on understanding available data, machine learning types, algorithm models and business applications.
1. First, determine if what is the nature of the available data. Do you have historical campaign data with historical results or an unstructured database of customer records? Or are you trying to make real-time decisions on streaming data?
2. The data available–and use case–will determine the appropriate machine learning approach. There are three major types: supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning. a) Supervised Learning allows to you to predict an outcome based on input and output data (e.g. churn). b) Unsupervised Learning allows to you categorize outcomes based on input data (e.g. segmentation). c) Reinforcement Learning allows you to react to an environment (e.g. driverless car).
3. Each machine learning type will use a number of algorithm. There are hundreds of variations. Supervised Learning typically uses regression or classification algorithms. Unsupervised Learning uses, but is not limited to, clustering algorithms. Reinforcement Learning will usually use to type of neural network algorithm.
4. The uses of machine learning are nearly limitless. Although I listed here as the last step, determining the use case or business application should probably be the first step. For example, we would use logistic regression to determine whether a house would sell at a certain price or not and we would use linear regression to predict the future price of a house. You should keep in mind that machine learning business applications typically require the use of more than one machine learning type as well as multiple algorithms.
I hope this sketch serves as a useful guide. Feel free to share and use as needed.
Thoughts and comments as well as suggestions for other sketched explanations are welcomed.